Firstly, you cannot bring fast track Hague Convention proceedings to get a return order because although both Israel and the United States are bound by a special convention on child abduction, it only applies to minors under the age of 16.
Secondly, you could bring non-Hague proceedings in Israel,to recognize and enforce a foreign order, from an American court, that you should try to obtain first , declaring the USA to be his 'home' , his retention in Israel as unlawful, and ordering his father to return your son to your custody , in the U.S.A . The Israeli family court would have discretion whether to recognize and enforce the American court order or not, making sure your son has the opportunity to have his voice heard. The Israeli Family court may refuse to return your son if he, himself, objects strongly, and is found not be subject to manipulation from his father. If your son has no strong views on the subject and is willing to return /or is found to be subject to manipulation/incitement from his father, then, the Israeli family court may well recognize and enforce an American court order to send him back to the States, even if the Hague Convention itself does not apply because your son has just turned 16.